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Introduction to the types of steel

Jan 19, 2020

A, ferrous metals, steel and non-ferrous metals 

Before introducing the classification of steel, briefly introduce the basic concepts of ferrous metals, steel and non-ferrous metals. 

1.    Ferrous metal is an alloy of iron and iron. Such as steel, pig iron, iron alloy, cast iron, etc. Steel and pig iron are alloys based on iron and carbon as the main additive element, collectively referred to as iron-carbon alloys. 

2.    Pig iron is a product made by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. It is mainly used to make steel and make castings. 

3.    The cast pig iron is smelted in an iron melting furnace to obtain cast iron (liquid). The liquid cast iron is cast into a casting, which is called a cast iron. 

4.    Ferroalloy is an alloy composed of iron and silicon, manganese, chromium, titanium and other elements.Ferroalloy is one of the raw materials for steelmaking. It is used as a deoxidizer and alloying element additive for steel during steelmaking. 

5.     Put the pig iron for steelmaking into a steelmaking furnace and melt it according to a certain process to obtain steel. Steel products include steel ingots, continuous casting slabs, and direct casting of various steel castings. Generally speaking, steel generally refers to steel rolled into various steels. Steel is ferrous but steel is not exactly equal to ferrous. 

6.    Non-ferrous metals, also called non-ferrous metals, refer to metals and alloys other than ferrous metals, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum, and brass, bronze, aluminum alloys and bearing alloys. In addition, chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, etc. are also used in the industry. These metals are mainly used as alloy additives to improve the performance of metals. Among them, tungsten, titanium, molybdenum, etc. are mostly used for the production of tools. Cemented carbide. These non-ferrous metals are all called industrial metals. In addition, there are precious metals: platinum, gold, silver, and rare metals, including radioactive uranium and radium. 

 

B, the classification of steel

Steel is an iron-carbon alloy with a carbon content between 0.04% and 2.3%. In order to ensure its toughness and plasticity, the carbon content generally does not exceed 1.7%. In addition to iron and carbon, the main elements of steel are silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus. There are various methods for the classification of steel. The main methods are as follows: 

1. Classification by quality 

(1) ordinary steel (P≤0.045%, S≤0.050%) 

(2) high-quality steel (both P and S≤0.035% )
(3) High-quality steel (P≤0.035%, S≤0.030%) 

2. Classification by chemical composition 

(1) Carbon steel: a. Low carbon steel (C≤0.25%); b. Medium carbon steel (C ≤0.25 ~ 0.60%); c. High carbon steel (C≤0.60%). 

(2) Alloy steel: a. Low-alloy steel (total content of alloy elements ≤5%); b. Medium-alloy steel (total content of alloy elements> 5-10%); c. High-alloy steel (total content of alloy elements> 10) %). 

3. Classification by forming method:

(1) forged steel; (2) cast steel; (3) hot rolled steel; (4) cold drawn steel. 

4. Classification by metallographic structure 

(1) In the annealed state: a. Hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite + pearlite); b. Eutectoid steel (pearlite); c. Hypereutectoid steel (pearlite + infiltration) Carbon body); d. Lacite steel (pearlite + cementite).

 (2) Normalized: a. Pearlitic steel; b. Bainite steel; c. Martensitic steel; d. Austenitic steel. 

(3) No phase change or partial phase change 

5. Classification by use

(1) Steel for construction and engineering: a. Ordinary carbon structural steel; b. Low alloy structural steel; c. Reinforced steel. 

(2) Structural steel a. Steel for machinery manufacturing: (a) quenched and tempered structural steel; (b) case hardened structural steel: including carburized steel, ammoniated steel, and surface hardened steel; (c) free-cut structural steel; (d) Steel for cold plastic forming: including cold stamping steel and cold heading steel. b. Spring steel c. Bearing steel 

(3) Tool steel: a. Carbon tool steel; b. Alloy tool steel; c. High-speed tool steel. 

(4) Special performance steel: a. Stainless acid-resistant steel; b. Heat-resistant steel: including oxidation-resistant steel, heat-strength steel, and valve steel; c. Electric alloy steel; d. Wear-resistant steel; e. Low-temperature steel ; F. Electrical steel.

(5) Professional steel—such as bridge steel, ship steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, and agricultural machinery steel. 

6, comprehensive classification 

(1) ordinary steel 

a. Carbon structural steel: (a) Q195; (b) Q215 (A, B); (c) Q235 (A, B, C); (d) Q255 (A, B); (e) Q275. 

b. Low-alloy structural steel 

c. Ordinary structural steel for specific purposes 

(2) High-quality steel (including high-quality high-quality steel) 

a. Structural steel: (a) High-quality carbon structural steel; (b) Alloy structural steel; (c) Spring Steel; (d) free-cutting steel; (e) bearing steel; (f) high-quality structural steel for specific uses. 

b. Tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) alloy tool steel; (c) high-speed tool steel. 

c. Special performance steel: (a) stainless acid-resistant steel; (b) heat-resistant steel; (c) electric heating alloy steel; (d) electrical steel; (e) high-manganese wear-resistant steel. 

7. Classification by smelting method 

(1) According to furnace type 

a. Open hearth steel: (a) Acid hearth steel; (b) Basic hearth steel.

b. Converter steel: (a) acid converter steel; (b) alkaline converter steel. Or (a) bottom-blown converter steel; (b) side-blown converter steel; (c) top-blown converter steel. 

c. Electric furnace steel: (a) electric arc furnace steel; (b) electroslag furnace steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) vacuum consumable furnace steel; (e) electron beam furnace steel. 

(2) According to the degree of deoxidation and pouring system, it is divided into

 a. Boiling steel; b. Semi-killed steel; c. Killed steel; d. Special killed steel.


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